Speqmic is the Secwepemc word for swan. I chose this to be my first Secwepemc Geographic blog because there seem to be a lot of natural connections. First, the photograph I took of swans was about a year ago during the coldest time of the year. Second, it’s my moms favourite bird. And lastly, there are a lot of Secwepemc connections to the swan, the least of which is that my community’s principal village was called “pellspeqmic”.
The pair of swans in the photograph are Trumpeter swans. The picture was taken on the Thompson River where the North and South Thompson rivers meet. Trumpeter swans were once on track to extinction back in the day, but have since made a come back. There are now estimated to be up to 400 Trumpeter swans on the South Thompson which is remarkable considering they were once extirpated from this region of BC. It speaks to the resilience of our land and wildlife. There are also Tundra swans on the South Thompson. They are seemingly identical except that Tundra swans have a small yellow dot on their beak below their eyes. There are estimated to be up to 600 Tundra swans. They spend their winter on the South Thompson because it provides excellent habitat. It’s relatively ice free and there are a lot of plants available to eat because it’s a slow moving river. Cottonwood and shrub riparian habitat are very important to their survival. Riparian habitat is being lost to bank erosion due to high speed boating on the river.
As I mentioned earlier, Pellspeqmic is the name of Canim Lake Band’s historic principle village. Teit says it was located approximately 6 miles from the head of Canim Lake on the south side. This would place it near the McNeil Ranch and Roserim Beach. Teit also states that the Lake was originally called Kolila. I’m not sure what it means, but there was a Chief of Tkemlups who had a similar name, Kwolila. He was the Chief who negotiated the Fish Lake Accord between the Secwepemc and Okanagan Nations. Teit says there were three principle villages, one of which is near where the current reserve is, and would actually be where the Canim Lake Ranch currently is. There was a third one Teit writes as Pelta’laxen. I’m not sure what this means. The current name, Canim Lake, comes from the Chinook jargon word for Canoe.
This blog is based off of some of my personal adventures – by no means authoritative or academic. In the future it will be a mix of some of the places I’ve traveled, a bit about the land/animals, and a bit about our history. I would love to know your thoughts. Did you like this blog? Is there something you would like me to write about?
In October 2016, I had the privilege to speak on the Council for the Advancement of Native Development Officers Nation Youth Panel in Whitehorse, Yukon. The picture above is the six youth panelists. Below is the text of my speech.
Weyt-k xwexweytep ne7elye ne cplulkwten. Carl Archie ren skwewkst. Te Tsqescen te st7ekwen ell ne tkemlups re mumtwen. Le7 ren pupsmen es wikts xwexweyt ne7elye ne lleqmellcw. My name is Carl Archie. I’m from Canim Lake of the Secwepemc Nation. I currently live and work in Kamloops, BC. I'm excited to be here and glad to see everyone. Today I'm going to talk a bit about me, my past, my achievements, and then my vision for the future of our nations.
Canada's Aboriginal people were estimated to have up to a $32 billion economy in 2016. Economic Development Corporations's thought to have a big part in that. TD Economics estimates that Economic Development Corporations grew. And that's due in large per due to talented Economic Development Officers like yourselves. But it also estimated that individual incomes haven't grown by nearly as much. The same TD Economics report estimates that by 2016 the size of the Aboriginal market in Canada should have increased to $32 billion – driven by 7.4% growth in business income compared to a 4.0% growth in personal income. At the same time, TD Economics estimates that discretionary income for individual natives will have only increased by 1.5% over the same 2011-2016 period. That’s not even inflation for one year in Canada!
The wealth of First Nations hasn't yet reached our communities!
And it's the well being of our people at home who are at the back of my mind as I work - initially as a commercial account manager at the Bank of Montreal, and now as a consultant assisting First Nations with land development, business planning and more. Because like many of you here today, I grew up on the Rez.
And the challenges that are indicated by the numbers I just talked about – I lived those. The poverty – I just spent more in the last two weeks than I did in an entire year as an undergrad student. The alcoholism – many in my family were alcoholics in my younger years. As a result, my brothers and sister and I went from foster home to foster home for a brief period. The suicide – there were times when people in my family didn’t want to live anymore. I’ve had aunts and cousins whom I looked up to who are no longer with us.
However, I was raised up by my community, with all the care and purpose and patience in the world. Elders who said, "ta7us k sllepenc xetaqs re secwepemc-k" which translates to “don’t forget you are Secwepemc first.” and mentors who said "bankers, lawyers, consultants are a dime a dozen. It's the fact that you are Secwépemc that makes you unique in a world of 7 billion people."
And don't let anyone tell you that you're not Secwépemc. Or call you an apple. Or tell you that you're assimilated. Just because you studied business. Our ancestors suffered unimaginably for all of us to be here. You were put on this earth to help our people. So if they can't tell you who Tcyenmescen is, or where to find wild food in your territory, or what or where pellspecmic is, then don't let them tell you who you are. To quote Maya Angelou, I come here as one. But I stand before you as 10,000!
And so, it’s with this in mind, that I set out into the world back in 2007 to attend Thompson Rivers University to study business. I had no clue what I was doing. I only took business because I met the requirements for admission. Also because the title of the degree was Bachelors of Business Administration. I said to myself “hmm, it has the word administrator” in it. And I looked up to our Band Administrator. So why not? And in 2009, the world was going through a major recession and I said “hmm, economics sounds relevant.” I had never heard the term until someone said it in the news. But as I studied it, I realized that economics wasn’t meant for Indians. There was no mention of First Nations in any of our books. And slowly I became aware of the shortfalls of our education system. At the time I was extremely shy. But after saying “I told you so” to group mates so many times, I decided enough was enough.
And my advocacy didn’t stop at my class groups. We had a shortage of services on campus for Aboriginal students. I became President of the First Nations Student Society. We developed the Aboriginal mentorship program – as senior students we mentored new Aboriginal students. We revitalized Aboriginal Awareness Days and pow wow. There are elders in residence. And much more.
In my final summer, I attended a round table on Aboriginal Business studies in Edmonton hosted by the Purdy Crawford Chair in Aboriginal Business. At the time one of my comments was that I wanted an Aboriginal Business textbook written by Aboriginal business people. So the Chair asked me what I was doing for the summer. I said, well, I’m going fishing. He said how about you come fishing in Nova Scotia? I did. I didn’t have a job to do, but when I showed up, they said “you wanted a textbook, here’s your chance to write one.” I had never written a textbook in my life and I was clueless. But by the end of the summer I had written a table of contents based on my experience and knowledge. The textbook is now published.
I was also elected to TRU’s Board of Governors as only the second Aboriginal student to sit on the Board. I was elected to CANDO’s Board of Directors. 3 days after I walked across the stage as one of only half a dozen native people in the country to study economics, I started my first job as a Commercial Account Manager at the Bank of Montreal. I didn’t even know what a mortgage was until my boss asked me to secure an $800,000 loan with a mortgage over the clients property. Mortgages aren’t part of on-reserve culture.
I can talk about these achievements casually now because I lived it. But at the time it was a tough slog. I was called a stupid Indian. I lived off of $900 a month. I was told my achievements were only filling quotas – and that I was just a token. 24 people in my community passed away while I was attending school including my grandpa – the semester he passed away was the first time I ever failed a course. One of the things that helped me through was my passion for photography. I was paid $500 per day to do events, my photos are on the walls of prominent lawyers’ offices, they were published in magazines, Justin Trudeau even used my photo in his leadership campaign. And now, I stand before you. A proud Secwepemc person. Fluent in my language, understanding of our medicines, having travelled to every corner of our vast territory and fished in every major river. And having worked from coast to coast to coast in every major Canadian city. For the past year and a bit, I’ve been doing consulting in Economic Development. I’ve travelled to dozens of communities, and met with their people, managers, and leadership. And I’m fortunate enough to be able to see the greatness and visions of our people and leaders and am thankful that they’ve shared their knowledge with me.
We know that we can be great. Because we were great. We are. The Secwepemc Nation is made up of 17 communities. We have 10,200 citizens that we know of. We’re accustomed to thinking of ourselves as poor, but collectively we have $179 million in revenue, with $22 million in surplus revenues. Our territory is 180,000 km squared, making it larger than half of the recognized nations in the world. The Secwepemc Nation is the largest Indigenous Nation in BC. I believe in the greatness that we can be. I see this. I know you see this. But now it is up to us to help Indian country embrace this vision of nation building through economic development. Because there are people back home who are counting on us all to succeed. Who can’t afford the status quo. We need to find a path forward.
And so, I have proposed to my nation, the development of a Secwepemc Economic Commission. It’s a nation-based approach to economic development in our territory. The commission’s goals would be to coordinate internal resources. We have 17 economic development officers, each in charge of a suite of nearly identical businesses, competing against each other. That doesn’t make sense to me. Building capacity. How much information do we actually have on activities in our own territory? Nearly none. Gathering statistics which enable our officers to make meaningful, informed decisions is something needed. And lastly, attracting and influencing investments to our territory. Knowing we have unextinguished Aboriginal Rights in our territory, why are municipalities and regional districts left to do land use planning for our land? Why can’t we stake our own mineral claims, and partner with global mining companies to extract them on our terms?
So to my fellow youth, keep going. If you told me back in 2007 that I would be advising First Nations throughout the province, or that my first job would be to manage a $40 million portfolio, I would have never believed you. Trust me when I say this - it's only the beginning. We are a modern, highly educated generation, fluent in our languages and comfortable in board rooms. It is time for current leaders to either step-up, or let us lead! To my fellow economic development officers, I trust you will stand with me, in unity, for the economic prosperity of our people, our communities, and our nations.
You can nominate a 2017 National Youth Panelist here: http://www.edo.ca/conference/2017/national-youth-panel
For more than 100 years, the Secwépemc people have asked for nothing more than the respect, recognition, and implementation of our collective Rights. Instead, our rights were trampled underfoot (literally at times) and our nation was divided and put on reserves. When the BC Greens and NDP announced on Monday (May 29, 2017) that they intend to form government in British Columbia, I took a moment to think of the potential impacts to Indigenous peoples in British Columbia – and specifically, the Secwepemc economy. The BC NDP’s 2017 platform stated that implementing the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) would be a priority for all its ministers. They stated without qualification (unlike the federal government) that “We’ll review policies, programs and legislation to determine how to bring the principles of the Declaration to action in British Columbia.”
The federal government also made similar commitments, with some qualifications. On May 10, 2017, Minister of Indigenous and Northern Affairs Carolyn Bennett stood before the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues and declared that “[The Government of Canada] intends nothing less than to adopt and implement the declaration in accordance with the Canadian Constitution.
So what does it mean to bring action to the principles of UNDRIP? All levels of government, including our own Indigenous governments, must take executive action in accordance with the guidelines of UNDRIP. Not only should reparations be made to make us whole again, but we must make all decisions moving forward with full respect for the Rights of Indigenous peoples. There are no less than 8 articles in UNDRIP which pertain to the Secwepemc economy. Below is a list of each of the articles:
Article 18: Indigenous peoples have the right to participate in decision-making in matter which would affect their rights, through representatives chosen by themselves in accordance with their own procedures, as well as maintain and develop their own Indigenous decision-making institutions.
Article 19: States shall consult and cooperate in good faith and with the Indigenous peoples concerned through their own representative institutions in order to obtain their free, prior and informed consent before adopting and implementing legislative or administrative measure that may affect them.
Article 20: 1. Indigenous peoples have the right to maintain and develop their political, economic, and social systems or institutions to be secure in the enjoyment of their own means of subsistence and development, and to engage freely in all their traditional and other economic activities.
2. Indigenous peoples deprived of their means of subsistence and development are entitled to just and fair redress.
Article 21: 1. Indigenous peoples have the right, without discrimination, to the improvement of their economic and social conditions, including, inter alia, in the areas of education, employment, vocational training and retraining, housing, sanitation, health and social economy.
2. States shall take effective measure and, where appropriate, special measure to ensure continuing improvement of their economic and social conditions. Particular attention shall be paid to the rights and special needs of indigenous elders, women, youth, children, and persons with disabilities.
Article 23: Indigenous peoples have the right to determine and develop priorities and strategies for exercising their right be actively involved in developing and determining health, housing, and other economic and social programmes affecting them and, as far as possible, to administer such programs through their own institutions.
Article 26: 1. Indigenous peoples have the right to the lands, territories, and resources which they have traditionally owned, occupied or otherwise user or acquired.
2. Indigenous peoples have the right to own, use, develop and control the lands, territories, and resources that they possess b reason of traditional ownership or other traditional occupation or use, as well as those which they have otherwise acquired.
3. States shall give legal recognition and protection to these lands, territories and resources. Such recognition shall be conducted with due respect to the customs, traditions and land tenure systems of the Indigenous peoples concerned.
Article 28: 1. Indigenous peoples have the right to redress, by means that can include restitution or, when this is not possible, just, fair, and equitable compensation, for the lands, territories and resources which they have traditionally owned or otherwise occupied or used, and which have been confiscated, taken, occupied, used, or damaged with their free, prior, and informed consent.
2. Unless otherwise freely agreed upon by peoples concerned, compensation shall take the form of lands, territories and resources equal in quality, size and legal status or of monetary compensation or other appropriate redress.
Article 39: Indigenous peoples have the right to have access to financial and technical assistance from States and through international cooperation, for the enjoyment of the rights contained in this declaration.
In order to realize the full implementation of our economic rights as Secwepemc people, as articulated in the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, we must first assert them to the fullest extent possible. In my view, the development of a Secwepemc Economic Commission as outlined in my blog is the fullest expression of our rights. If we are to assert our rights as a Secwepemc Nation, we must organize as one. Our truest power comes when we begin to act like a Nation.
Both the Provincial and Federal governments must provide the resources available to make this happen. INAC and Provincial programs don’t work and never will. Indigenous Nationhood is not a government program. We must be allowed to develop economic programs for our own nations as we see fit. In full compliance with UNDRIP, our governments must assert our ability to collect economic rents from our traditional territories from all activities occurring within Secwépemcul’ucw. If the Provincial and Federal governments are not willing to vacate the tax space, then it will become an extra cost to doing business in our territory.
Canada and the Province need to stop perpetuating the division of our nation through government programs aimed at keeping us confined to our reservations on a band by band basis. Any further funding from governments should be put toward the development of a Secwepemc governing authority and our nation allowed to collect our own revenue. Secwepemc territory is 180,000 kilometres squared, making it bigger than half the recognized nations in the entire world. There is no reason for us to be poor on our own land.
With continued rhetoric on a nation-to-nation relationship between First Nations and the Federal government, I thought it would be timely to write down my thoughts on a nation based approach to Economic Development. Below is my vision for the Secwépemc Nation and a Secwépemc Economic Commission.
Vision: The Secwépemc Nation is the primary Economic Authority on Secwepemcul'ucw.
Mission: Attracting global investments into Secwépemcul'ucw, people, organizations, and resources. Coordinating economic resources within the Secwépemc Nation. Building capacity of our community for economic development including our people, land, and animals.
Purpose: Reviving the spirit of the Secwépemc people through Economic Prosperity and leaving a legacy for our future generations.
With 17 communities, over $179 million in annual revenue, and more than 10,200 citizens, the Secwépemc Nation is the largest Indigenous Nation in British Columbia. Secwépemcul'ucw, or the land of the Secwépemc, is over 180,000 kilometres squared, making it larger than half of the recognized countries in the world. The Secwépemc people are, and have always been, the primary Economic Authority over our territory.
The Secwépemc Economic Commission is committed to expanding and enhancing the Secwépemc Economy through enhancing relationships with the larger Canadian and International business community, expanding our internal capacity for economic development, and deploying our resources effectively and efficiently to meet the needs of our citizens.
Economic Development is a hot topic for many First Nations. It has certainly taken on political significance with more than $6 billion in Impact Benefit Agreements signed to date in British Columbia. However, many First Nations struggle to realize their Economic Development potential. In my experience, this is due to a low risk appetite on the First Nations’ part. This is compounded by the fact that most trusted advisors to First Nations are inherently risk-averse and look at business opportunities through mainly legal and accounting lenses. Below are five reasons why a First Nation, or any business, may want to consider specifically hiring a Business Advisor:
Broad Skillset: As someone who has graduated with a Bachelors of Business Administration, I can attest to the broad set of skills which are valuable to any business, and particularly to a First Nation with business and financial goals. Through various courses, I’ve had the opportunity to learn learn about all things business which include: technical writing, public presentations, statistics, accounting, decision-making, strategic planning, teamwork, human resources, supply chain management, and economics. Many business students have the opportunity to specialize in any one of these areas. I chose to specialize in Economics and had the opportunity to apply economic theory to develop business and economic policy solutions for First Nations.
Cultural Competency: As a consultant who has travelled to communities across Canada, I have seen many First Nations waste time and money trying to educate a revolving door of advisors on culture, community dynamics, and history. Not only do First Nations Business Advisors save you time and money, we often have a deep appreciation for culture and its importance to nation re-building. I am fluent in my language, Secwepemctsin, and it bothers me to see so many strategic documents sanitized of our language and culture. It’s time we utilize our own business people in our nation re-building efforts. As Aboriginal Business Advisors, we can skip the history lesson and get straight to business.
Values Alignment: As Aboriginal Business Advisors, our values are inherently linked to the First Nations’ whom we serve. After all, we were raised in our communities. We insist upon getting positive results because our reputations in the nascent Aboriginal business community depend on it. We are all here to stay and we have to do right by our communities. Many of us have friends and family throughout the province and when we attend community events, it’s probably because we want to catch up with them. It’s not just “business development” to us. And when we develop plans with First Nations, we recognize the importance of our indigenous values informing the plan going forward. I worked with Kanaka Bar Band on developing a Community Economic Development Plan that was as much an Economic Development strategy as it was a Sustainability strategy. Check it out here: http://www.kanakabarband.ca/downloads/community-economic-development-plan.pdf
Fresh Ideas: For 141 years First Nations have lived under the Indian Act. Not much has changed for our people living on reserves while the pace of business continues to rapidly evolve. As Aboriginal Business Advisors, we are deeply connected with both worlds. I personally have travelled to over 50 First Nation communities across Canada and have seen initiatives that work, and some that could use help. As a former business banker, I’ve had first hand insight into more than 100 businesses that were financially successful and the opportunity to interview each of the owners. With this type of insight, an Aboriginal Business Advisor can help you translate your Nation’s ancient knowledge into modern business innovation.
Networks: Relationships mean a lot to First Nations. They mean as much for business people. As Aboriginal Business Advisors, we have significant networks inside and outside of First Nations communities to assist you in everything you might require to achieve business success. The Ch’nook Scholars network alone has alumni who are experts in everything from real estate, personal finance, commercial finance, accounting, fisheries, forestry, technology, public service, human resources, project management, donuts, and so much more. As a former Board member on national organizations, and current Masters of Business Administration student, I can reach into a network that stretches from Membertou, Nova Scotia, to Kugluktuk, Nunavut, to Nuchatlaht, British Columbia – coast to coast to coast – for support in making things happen.
What are your Nations’ business aspirations? Hire an Aboriginal Business Advisor and experience first hand the value that can be created when we hire and trust our own people.
Learn more about the Ch'Nook Scholars network here: http://www.sauder.ubc.ca/Programs/Chnook/Students/Chnook_Scholars
“The only federal policy that has produced sustained improvement in the lives of Indigenous peoples is the policy of self-determination.” - Stephen Cornell
Can the Canadian government bring itself to get out of the way of Canada’s First Nations?
And when it does, are First Nations prepared to lead as Nations?
When Justin Trudeau issued mandate letters to his cabinet ministers, he stated that no relationship was more important than that with the Indigenous peoples. The relationship must be one of nation to nation. But after more than 150 years of deliberate attempts by successive Canadian governments to destroy us, the goals of the new government were bound to fall short. This is because there are no longer any nation apparatus’ to have a relationship with.
The Secwepemc Nation is a prime example of being a nation without any supporting structure. There are more than 10,000 Secwepemc “band members” who make up 17 Indian Act Bands. There is tremendous potential to exercise immense political and economic clout in the massive Secwepemc territory. However, the political environment is such that each First Nation believes that they are better off to go it alone.
There are communities who work together but even these communities still suffer from the effects of the colonial legacy. This is because after Indian Agents retreated, the government still needed to administer the Indian Act regime over Indians in Canada. They wanted to do so at the cheapest possible cost to the federal government. So, they amalgamated many bands into “Tribal Councils”. But, the Tribal Councils were not even close to resembling any sort of nation. The Cariboo Tribal Council, for example, was made up of Carrier, Chilcotin, and Secwepemc peoples. To nobody’s surprise, the Tribal Councils started to break up and reform along nation lines back in the 90’s. However, this left the Secwepemc Nation with two separate Tribal Councils and a number of “non-affiliated” First Nations. Current divisions within the Secwepemc Nation are a clear legacy of Canadian colonialism.
The benefits of acting as one Secwepemc Nation far outweigh the individual gains of each community working alone. But because of the colonial history and current INAC policies, First Nations feel better off going it alone. In Economic terms, we call this the prisoners dilemma. It will never work!
The divisions within the nation are still being perpetuated by current INAC policies. A simple but clear example is that funding is based on Indian Act Bands as defined by INAC. If the government wanted truly have nation to nation relationships, they would include funding that is nation-based as part of their formulas. Moreover, they would fund nation building efforts. Until Indigenous Nations are supporting in nation re-building efforts, the federal government efforts to have a nation to nation relationship will fail and any improvements in the day to day livelihoods of Indigenous peoples will be temporary.
Increases to program funding, and fiddling around the edges of the Indian Act will never work. It’s time for the Secwepemc Nation to roll up our sleeves and begin the task of nation re-building. As a nation, we must seek to:
Carl has been actively involved in re-imagining nation building. He has travelled extensively throughout Secwepemc territory and is fluent in Secwepemctsin.